Making stars when the universe was half its age

The Hubble Ultra Deep Field of galaxies. A new study of the star formation activity in 179 of the galaxies in this image including many dating from about six billion years ago confirms an earlier puzzling result: lower mass galaxies tend to make stars at a rate slightly slower than expected.

The universe is about 13.8 billion years old, and its stars are arguably its most momentous handiwork. Astronomers studying the intricacies of star formation across cosmic time are trying to understand whether stars and the processes that produce them were the same when the universe was younger, about half its